Mbinu za kulima parachichi ili kupata faida

Kilimo cha Parachichi nacho kinalipa ukilima.

Jifunze namna ya kulima nimeipata pahala

Agronomy ya Parachichi

Hali ya hewa

-Ni tunda linalopenda sana sehemu za baridi, maeneo kama ya Rungwe-Mbeya, Njombe, Makete, linastawi vizuri sana, na huwa na Fatty Contenty kubwa

Joto

Nyuzi 15-25 Sentigrade

Muinuko

Mita 1200-1800 kutoka usawa wa baridi

Udongo

-Uwe kichanga tifutifu (Sandy loam), usiotuamisha maji

Aina za Parachichi

1. Zipo aina za kiasili

Kila sehemu kuna iana za parachichi ambazo ni za asili ya eneo husika, parchichi hizi, huwa ndefu sana, na mavuno machache

2. Zipo aina za kisasa (Chotara)

Ziko aina nyingi sana za Parachichi chotara, na hizi hapa chini ni baadhi ya zile maarufu hapa tanzania

i. Hass

-Hii ni aina maarufu sana katika aina za parachichi

– Ni tunda linalokuwa na vipere vipere
-Limechongoka juu na chini
-Linahifadhika kwa urahisi

ii. Aina ya pili ni Fuerte

-Hili ni aina ya parachichi lenye ngozi laini saini, ngozi yake inateleza kama imepakwa mafuta
-liko na mafuta mengi ila linawahi kuoza
-Ni zuri kwa matumizi ya kawaida , si kwa kusafirisha umbali mrefu
-Aina hii ikilimwa sehemu za miinuko na baridi sana, inafaa sana kutoa mafuta mengi yanayoweza kutumika kutengeza lotion na baadhi ya vyakula vya mifugo

iii. Aina ya tatu maarufu hapa tanzania -inaitwa X-ikulu

-Ana hii ni maarufu sana kwa mikoa ya nyanda za juu kusini (Mikoa ya Njombe, Iringa, Mbeya na Ruvuma)
-Mti wa aina hii huwa na majani mapana kama mti wa embe
-Mti huu huchukua muda mrefu sana kustawi
-Tunda lake huwa ni kubwa, na lina gharama sana

Upandaji wa Parachichi

Nafasi kati ya shimo na shimo

-Umbali wa kutoka shimo hadi shimo ni MITA 7
-UMbali wa kutoka mstari hadi mstari ni MITA 7

Lakini kipimo hicho hapo juu kitategemea sana na aina ya udongo wa shamba lako , kwa udongo wenye Phosphorus kwa wingi (P), kipimo hicho hakifai, maana baada ya mika 3-5 miche ya mistari miwili inayofuatana itakuwa imekuatana katikati

-Hivyo nafasi yaweza kuwa

8M X 8M-KWA NAFASI HII UTAKUWA NA MICHE 63 KWA EKA 1
AU 9M X 9M-KWA NAFASI HII UTAKUWA NA MICHE 49 KWA EKA 1
AU 10M X 10M- KWA NAFASI HII UTAKUWA NA MICHE 40 KWA EKA 1

Ukubwa wa shimo-Shimo laweza kuwa futi 2.5 x futi2.5 x futi 2.5 = (sm 75 x sm 75 x sm 75) (Kimo x upana x urefu)

-Au kipimo cha futi 3 x futi 3 x futi 3= sm 90 x sm 90 x sm 90

Mbolea

-Mbolea za kupandia zitakazohitajika , ni moja wapo kati ya hizi
-Samadi, Mboji, DAP, au TSP-Lakini ni muhimu kupandia mbolea asilia kama samadi ukachanganya kidogo na TSP au DAP

Kipimo cha mbolea,

-Kama ni mbolea za asili (Samadi au Mboji)-Kiasi cha kilo 16 hadi 20 kinapaswa kiwekwe katika shimo miezi 3 kabla ya kupanda mche

-Kama utapandia mbolea za viwandani (TSP, DAP, Minjingu, NPK etc)
kiasi cha gramu 100 hadi 200 kiwekwe kwa kila shimo, ichanganywe vizuri na udongo, kisha mmea uwekwe na kumwagiliwa

KUKOMAA NA KUTOA MAVUNO

-Parachichi hasa hizi za kisasa, hukomaa baada ya miezi 18 hadi 24

MAVUNO

-Kwa mara ya kwanza mti mmoja wa parachichi unaweza kukupa kati ya matunda 50 hadi 100 kwa mche mmoja.
-Mavuno hueongezeka kadri umri unavyoongezeka
-Mti wa parachichi ukifikia umri wa miaka 4 hadi 5, unakuwa full maturity, na hivyo mti mmoja unaweza kukupa hadi matunda 1200 kwa mwaka mzima ‘

FAIDA

kwa kipimo cha mita 10 x mita 10, katika eka mmoja utakuwa na mita 40
-Kila mti baada ya mika 5 unaweza kukupa wastani wa matunda 1000
-Hivyo kwa miti 40, utakuw na jumla ya matunda 40 x 1000= 40,000
-Kila tunda kwa bei ya shambani uuze tsh 250, na unamatunda 40,000
-Hivyo utapata jumla ya tsh 250 x matunda 40,000=10,000,000tsh (MILIONI 10)

Magonjwa ya parachichi

Parcahichi kama mimea mingine inashambuliwa sana hasa upande wa majani pamoja na matunda.

1. Yapo magonjwa ya majani, yanayosababishwa na fangasi/Ukungu, Algae, pamoja na wadudu, pamoja na lishe duni.

View attachment 332289
Jani lililoshambuliwa na Alga

View attachment 332290
Mite-Utitiri mweupe Avocado lililoshambuliwa na Utitiri

2.Magonjwa ya matunda


-Tatizo la Scab, husababishwa na Ukungu/Fangasi hasa wakati wa baridi/unyevu mwingi

Thrips wa avocado Matunda yaliyoathiriwa na Thrips

DAWA
-Dawa za kutibu wadudu kama Karate, Matchi, Actellic 50 EC, za faa sana kumaliza wadudu katika mmea wa parachichi

-Dawa za Ukungu kama Ridomil Gold, Ebony 72 WP (Mancozeb na Metalaxyn), Ivory, na Nordox zaweza kutumika kumaliza matatizo ya ukungu

-Lishe ya mmea

Mbolea za kukuzia kama CAN, UREA NA SA (hasa kwenye maeneo yenye magadi kwa wingi, na chumvi nyingi) yaweza kutumika kubalane PH YA Udongo.

-Booster=Mbolea za majani, maua na matunda kama vile Polyfeed Starter, Polyfeed finisher, Wauxal macro mix, Potphos, au Multi K , Ni muhimu sana zikatumika wakati wa maua, na matunda ili kuzuia matunda ya parachichi kuabort (Fruit abortion) yakiwa machanga, pamoja na kuzuia matunda kudondoka yakiwa machanga.

Hitimisho

Parachichi-Kama matunda mengine, ukililima kitaalamu, na ukaweka juhudi na maarifa linakutoa katika umaskini

Yafahamu Mambo Mbalimbali ya muhimu kuhusu kilimo cha Mazao ya Mboga Mboga kwa Ku-Download Kitabu cha MBINU ZA KILIMO BORA CHA MBOGA

Ni kitabu kinachotoa elimu ya Kilimo Cha Mboga. Kipo katika Mfumo wa PDF (Soft copy).

Kina kurasa 100 na utaalamu wa mazao zaidi ya 10, ambayo ni nyanya, kabichi, bamia, vitunguu maji, vitunguu twaumu, hoho, matikiti, karoti, uyoga na matango. Bila kusahau kilimo cha mboga kama chainizi na mchicha.

Pia utaweza kufahamu mbinu mbalimbali za kilimo cha mboga kama vile kuandaa shamba na kitalu, udhibiti wa wadudu na magonjwa katika mboga, kuvuna na kuhifadhi mboga, vilevile utajifunza kuhusu kilimo cha matone.

Kitabu hiki ni Soft copy [pdf] kwa hiyo unaweza kusoma moja kwa moja kirahisi kabisa hata kwenye simu yako. Utatumiwa Kopi ya kitabu hiki kwenye email yako na utaweza kukihifadhi na kusoma wakati wowote utakaotaka.

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