Harakati ya Dervish ya Somaliland dhidi ya utawala wa Uingereza

Harakati ya Dervish ya Somaliland dhidi ya utawala wa Uingereza ilikuwa ni mapambano ya kihistoria yaliyotokea kati ya mwaka 1899 hadi 1920 kwenye eneo la Somaliland, ambayo ni sehemu ya sasa ya Somalia. Harakati hii iliongozwa na Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, maarufu kama Mad Mullah, aliyekuwa kiongozi wa kidini na mwanaharakati wa uhuru. Harakati ya Dervish ilikuwa ni upinzani mkali dhidi ya ukoloni wa Uingereza na ilichochea hisia za uhuru na utaifa miongoni mwa Wa-Somalia.

Harakati ya Dervish ilianza mwaka 1899 baada ya Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan kuchukizwa na utekelezaji wa sera za ukoloni na unyonyaji wa Wa-Somalia na Uingereza. Alianzisha harakati yake katika eneo la Ogaden, ambalo wakati huo lilikuwa chini ya utawala wa Ethiopia. Harakati hii ilipanuka haraka na kuenea katika maeneo mengine ya Somaliland.

Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan aliweza kuunganisha makabila mbalimbali ya Wa-Somalia chini ya bendera ya imani ya Kiislamu na lengo la kuondoa utawala wa Uingereza. Alipata umaarufu mkubwa na mafanikio makubwa katika vita vyake dhidi ya Uingereza. Alijenga himaya ya Dervish, ambayo ilikuwa na nguvu kubwa na inayojitegemea.

Mwaka 1901, kikosi cha Uingereza kilipata pigo kubwa katika mapambano ya Jidballi. Katika mapambano hayo, askari wa Dervish walionyesha ujasiri na ustadi wa hali ya juu. Pia, katika kipindi hicho, Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan alianzisha mfumo wa ulinzi wa hewa kwa kutumia wachawi na wapigaji wa busu, ambao waliweza kuzuia mashambulizi ya ndege za Uingereza.

Mwaka 1908, Harakati ya Dervish ilifanikiwa kuteka mji mkuu wa Somaliland, Berbera, na kushinda vita dhidi ya Uingereza. Hii ilikuwa ni pigo kubwa kwa Uingereza na ilichochea hisia za uhuru miongoni mwa Wa-Somalia. Hata hivyo, Uingereza ilijibu kwa kuimarisha nguvu zake na kupeleka vikosi vya ziada kwa lengo la kurejesha udhibiti wake dhidi ya Harakati ya Dervish.

Mwaka 1913, Uingereza ilifanikiwa kuukomboa mji wa Berbera na kuwarejesha wakoloni wao. Walitumia kikosi cha zaidi ya askari 20,000 ambao walishambulia ngome ya Dervish kwenye mlima Majeerteen. Mapigano yalikuwa makali na ya kuendelea kwa miezi kadhaa kabla ya Dervish kuondolewa kabisa.

Kuanzia mwaka 1917, Uingereza ilianza kutumia ndege za kivita katika mapambano dhidi ya Harakati ya Dervish. Ndege hizo zilitumika kwa kufanya upelelezi na kushambulia maeneo ya ngome za Dervish. Hii ilikuwa ni mbinu mpya ambayo ilileta changamoto kubwa kwa Dervish, ambao hawakuwa na njia za kuzishambulia.

Mwaka 1920, uongozi wa Harakati ya Dervish ulikuwa umevunjika na mapigano yalikoma. Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan alifariki dunia mwezi Oktoba mwaka huo na uvumi ulienea kuwa alifariki kutokana na homa ya mafua. Kifo chake kilikuwa ni msiba mkubwa kwa Wa-Somalia ambao walimwona kama shujaa na kiongozi wao.

Harakati ya Dervish dhidi ya utawala wa Uingereza ilikuwa ni sehemu muhimu ya historia ya Somalia. Ilichochea hisia za uhuru na utaifa na ilithibitisha uwezo na ujasiri wa Wa-Somalia katika kupigania haki zao. Pamoja na kushindwa katika mapambano hayo, Harakati ya Dervish ilisababisha mabadiliko makubwa katika eneo hilo na ilikuwa ni hatua muhimu kuelekea uhuru kamili wa Somalia.

Je, unaona Harakati ya Dervish ya Somaliland dhidi ya utawala wa Uingereza kama sehemu muhimu ya historia ya Somalia? Je, unaona Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan kama shujaa wa uhuru wa Somalia?

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